Design and development of doors, windows and curta

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The tight supply of vanadium will be alleviated. In the envelope of building doors, windows and curtain walls, the most active and sensitive parts of heat exchange and heat conduction have 5-6 times the loss of heat transfer and loss of heat as the wall. The energy-saving effect of doors, windows and curtain walls accounts for 40% of the building energy saving. Therefore, the competent construction departments at all levels attach great importance to the promotion and application of energy-saving building doors, windows and curtain walls

energy saving doors and windows refer to door and window products that meet the building energy-saving design standards in the area where the building is located. It is determined by its technical performance and energy-saving effect, not by the type of processing materials. China's building energy conservation adopts two control indicators for the performance of doors and windows: the heat transfer coefficient K (or its reciprocal, thermal resistance R) of doors and windows and the air permeability coefficient (i.e. air tightness) a of doors and windows. For example: requirements in Beijing: K ≤ 3w/m2 8226; K (or R ≤ 0. 33m2 8226; k/w), a ≤ 0. 5m3 #8226; h; As long as these two technical requirements are met, it can be called energy-saving doors and windows

since its appearance in China in the 1980s, the building glass curtain wall has shown a large-scale and high-speed development trend for more than 20 years. From large cities in the east coast to remote mountain towns in the west, almost all glass curtain wall buildings can be seen. Especially in the super high-rise buildings in the city, the glass curtain wall occupies an absolute advantage: Beijing International Trade Center, Shenzhen Diwang building, Shanghai Jinmao building, Henglong square, Glass curtain walls are used everywhere. Shanghai Huanqiu Financial Plaza, the world's tallest building under construction, also plans to use glass curtain walls. China's building glass curtain wall has occupied a huge market share in its short development time of more than 20 years. At present, the annual building area of glass curtain wall in China has reached about 5million square meters, and the market prospect is still promising

the great contribution of scientific and technological progress

the prosperity of a new thing has its own historical background and social motivation. The rise of glass curtain wall is no exception. It is the product of China's economic development and prosperity and the progress of architectural science. With the prosperity of China's national strength and the needs of large-scale urban construction, a batch of high-rise buildings and super high-rise buildings have sprung up. For these buildings, the traditional brick wall is obviously not suitable for the maintenance structure, while the concrete wall is becoming increasingly inferior because it is too heavy. Only the light steel structure with glass curtain wall is the best choice. Glass curtain wall rises rapidly in high-rise buildings because of its crystal clear, light and beautiful, good weather resistance, good sealing, convenient installation, simple maintenance and many other advantages

the progress of building technology also makes it possible to use glass curtain walls on a large scale. First of all, the development of building science and technology has solved many technical problems of high-rise buildings, so that high-rise buildings can be doubled on the existing foundation. The emergence of a large number of high-rise buildings has provided a huge market demand for the application of glass curtain walls. Secondly, with the progress of research and development of building materials, it has been able to produce all kinds of metal structural parts needed in buildings, steel, aluminum alloy profiles, curtain wall connectors, etc., which meet the installation requirements of glass curtain walls; Advanced coated glass, tempered glass, insulating glass, laminated glass and hot bending glass provide a variety of choices for the use of glass curtain walls in different occasions. Third, the progress and improvement of building construction technology and the promotion and maturity of various advanced technologies have made the application of glass curtain wall in high-rise and super high-rise buildings as light as a weight, and there are no technical obstacles in the construction of glass curtain wall. With the continuous increase of high-rise, large-span, large space and special-shaped buildings, the application of steel structure supported glass curtain wall will be more and more widely

in the past 20 years, China's glass curtain wall has become more and more perfect in the development process, and now it has kept pace with the world's advanced level. In this process of continuous improvement, the aluminum products committee of China Architectural Decoration Association has played an important role

The manager of Engel said that the processing technology of thermoplastic optical fiber composites is expanding rapidly p> over the years, the aluminum products committee of China Architectural Decoration Association has been at the forefront of the industry and actively guided the healthy and orderly development of the industry. Timely publish articles on the problems existing in the curtain wall industry, attract the attention of the society, and guide the formulation of curtain wall policies and specifications for the country. For example, in the early 1990s, in the absence of national standards and specifications for hidden frame glass curtain walls, there were many false hidden frame curtain walls in China. Glass glue was used to replace structural glue, and iron and wood materials were used to replace aluminum. Some of these false curtain walls are even as high as 100 meters, seriously affecting the safety of people's lives and property. In response to these serious problems, the president of the Association issued an appeal that "hidden frame glass curtain wall with hidden dangers is like a time bomb over the city", which attracted the attention of the national administrative department and issued a series of documents to strengthen the management of hidden frame glass curtain wall

in the mid-1990s, the development of hidden frame glass curtain wall was too rapid. A few coated glass with high reflectivity turned the nearby shady side into the sunny side through sunlight reflection, which had a great impact on residents. For this reason, the Association published the article "pay attention to the light pollution of hidden frame glass curtain wall", which is the first time in China to put forward the problem of light pollution, and put forward the suggestion of using coated glass with low reflectivity, or using aluminum plate and coated glass at intervals to reduce light reflection. Under the call of the association, some large and medium-sized cities in China have made restrictions on the reflectivity of curtain wall glass

The Lianyi building on the Bund of Yan'an Road in Shanghai is the earliest glass curtain wall building in China. From its nearly 20 years of application practice, users have responded well, reflecting many advantages of the glass curtain wall building

Lianyi building, which was officially opened in May, 1985, is a high-grade foreign-related office building. The outer walls of the building are all open frame glass curtain walls. The property management unit of the building is the famous Shanghai Jinjiang property management company in Shanghai. According to the introduction of the building management office, the management and maintenance of this glass curtain wall building has more advantages compared with the traditional external walls, and there are no problems such as face brick falling off, coating peeling off and difficult cleaning of the external walls of other buildings. In the past 18 years, the silica gel has only been fully re applied once (this is the regulation of the technical requirements of the glass curtain wall). Usually, the curtain wall glass is only cleaned regularly with a window cleaning machine. Occasionally, some users accidentally break the curtain wall glass during indoor decoration, because the tempered glass will not be scattered, so it will not cause injury to personnel. It is also very convenient to replace one piece after disassembly. The design concept of the glass curtain wall of the building is advanced. Under each large glass, there is an openable window. Nanjing Julong and its subsidiaries have 34 patents, and the ventilation conditions are quite good. Even in the "SARS" epidemic period a while ago, customers are very satisfied with the ventilation conditions here. When it comes to daylighting, the building manager said that because the outer walls are all glass, the daylighting area is large, and the indoor light is also very good, very bright. As for the so-called "light pollution" that some people worry about, because Lianyi building uses low reflectivity curtain wall glass, Jinjiang property management has never encountered any dispute with its neighbors in this regard in recent years

practice has proved that the glass curtain wall indeed has superior performance that other walls cannot compare

with the wider application of curtain walls, there are more and more types of curtain walls

unit combined building curtain wall

unit combined curtain wall is a new type of building curtain wall structural system. It is a major change in the theory and construction technology of new enclosure structure based on the structural system of modern high-rise buildings represented by frame shear wall, frame tube and tube. The curtain wall of foreign new unit composite buildings has only a history of more than 20 years

the unit combined curtain wall is completely different from the fixed lattice beam traditional ordinary glass curtain wall. It is a curtain wall structure system that takes each unit plate component as the basic component unit, directly supports on the main structure, and combines these unit plates to form an area; The mullions (columns) of adjacent basic unit components are connected with each other, and the adjacent transoms (beams) are also connected with each other. The connected columns and beams form a combined lattice beam system; The inserted part of the combined beam and column is closed with an elastic sealing element, and the relative displacement can form a compensation effect; The unit size of basic plate is much larger than that of common fixed lattice beam curtain wall. It determines the unit size of plate based on the characteristics of the main structure of the building; The finishing materials of basic unit components (including lighting glass, metal plate, stone plate, artificial chemical plate, etc.) and plate structures are all processed and prefabricated in the factory, and only the combination and installation of plate units are carried out on the construction site

unit combined curtain wall improves the industrialized degree of building curtain wall and greatly shortens the construction period of enclosure structure; Because the elastic plug-in combination is realized around the basic unit, the temperature compensation, vibration compensation effect and impact strength of the curtain wall structure are improved, especially the displacement noise of the curtain wall structure caused by temperature difference is eliminated; The basic unit components of curtain wall are all processed and assembled in the factory, which improves the processing accuracy of products and improves the surface quality protection; The work at height at the construction site is reduced to ensure safe production

The development, popularization and application of

unit combined curtain wall has promoted the design level and construction technology of building curtain wall in China to a new level. The development of this product technology has led to the improvement of the production level of large section heavy-duty building aluminum profiles, and promoted the technological transformation and equipment renewal of building curtain wall production enterprises. During the Ninth Five Year Plan period, a number of large backbone enterprises introduced a number of special heavy-duty equipment and curtain wall processing centers from Germany, Italy and the United States to adapt to the processing and manufacturing of single unit combined curtain walls, narrowing the gap between China's curtain wall construction industry and the international advanced level

the unit combined curtain wall has gained valuable experience in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen and other large and medium-sized cities. The waterproof permeability and on-site installation and construction technology of the unit combined curtain wall in China have been widely praised by foreign enterprises and the same industry. Combined with the engineering characteristics, China has also developed semi unit combined curtain wall (fixed column, beam unit combination), small unit combined curtain wall (unit plate and lattice beam system combination) and other derived systems, which have also achieved good engineering results

point supported all glass curtain wall

point supported all glass curtain wall is also called point connected all glass curtain wall. It is a new development branch of the full glass curtain wall. It has changed the rigid plane modeling of the glass rib glued full glass curtain wall and the suspended full glass curtain wall, especially connecting the melody beauty of the structure and the modern sense of the glass support structure system, and established a new concept of the envelope structure system: it is a panoramic curtain wall, forming the permeability and integration of the internal and external space of the building, and achieving the beauty of the harmony and unity of people, environment and space; It gives full play to the space plastic art charm of glass, point connection and support system to form a light, agile and novel landscape effect; It is one of the symbols of modern architectural art and is favored by many people

point supported all glass curtain wall is composed of glass, point connectors and supporting structure system. Single piece, hollow and tempered hollow glass point connectors can be used for the glass. There are many shapes according to the glass structure

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